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Kn s-process Np Nucleosynthesis in late stellar evolution Qr Quasistatistical processes Ca Explosive burning in accreting binary systems novae, x-ray bursts Ef Explosive burning in supernovae shock fronts Hj r-process Jk Weak interaction and neutrino induced processes, galactic radioactivity Dd Neutron star core Gj Neutron star crust Kp Equations of state of neutron-star matter Cz Neutron scattering Fc Neutron absorption Gd Neutron transport: diffusion and moderation Ka Thermal neutron cross sections Pr Neutron imaging; neutron tomography Ak Theory, design, and computerized simulation Bm Fuel elements, preparation, reloading, and reprocessing Fr Reactor coolants, reactor cooling, and heat recovery Kw Radioactive wastes, waste disposal My Reactor control systems Pa Moderators Qb Structural and shielding materials Rc Instrumentation Te Protection systems, safety, radiation monitoring, accidents, and dismantling Vx Fuel cycles Dr Research reactors Ft Fast and breeder reactors Hw Power and production reactors Ky Propulsion reactors Ma Auxiliary generators Av Theory, design, and computerized simulation Cx Fueling, heating and ignition Fa Materials Lf Components and instrumentation Nh Safety Ba Electrostatic accelerators Dh Storage rings Ej Linear accelerators Fj Betatrons Hm Cyclotrons Lq Synchrotrons Bx Electron sources Dz Neutron sources Lg Ion sources: polarized Ni Ion sources: positive and negative Pj Polarized and other targets Rm Sources of radioactive nuclei Ac Beam injection and extraction Bd Beam dynamics; collective effects and instabilities Eg Beam handling; beam transport Fh Beam characteristics Hj Polarized beams Aj Charged-particle spectrometers: electric and magnetic Dn Electron spectroscopy Ep Charged-particle spectroscopy Hs Neutron spectroscopy Lw Nuclear orientation devices Db Fast radioactive beam techniques Gj Reaccelerated radioactive beams Cs Gas-filled counters: ionization chambers, proportional, and avalanche counters Gx Tracking and position-sensitive detectors Ka Cherenkov detectors Mc Scintillation detectors Rg Nuclear emulsions Vj Calorimeters Wk Solid-state detectors Ca Data acquisition and sorting Fj Data analysis Ar Ab initio calculations Dv Coupled-cluster theory Ew Density-functional theory Fx Finite-difference schemes Gy Semiclassical methods Hz Group theory Ja Hyperspherical methods Kb Path-integral methods Lc Quasiparticle methods Md Perturbation theory Ne Self-consistent-field methods Pf Variational techniques Qg Molecular dynamics and other numerical methods Rh Valence bond calculations Eb Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: ground state Jf Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: excited states Nj Electron correlation calculations for diatomic molecules Qm Electron correlation calculations for polyatomic molecules Gs Hyperfine interactions and isotope effects Jv Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in atoms and molecules Bc Potential energy surfaces for ground electronic states Df Potential energy surfaces for excited electronic states Gh Surface crossings, non-adiabatic couplings Dk Environmental and solvent effects Hq Time-dependent phenomena: excitation and relaxation processes, and reaction rates Ks Molecular solids Bi Atomic masses, mass spectra, abundances, and isotopes Dk Electric and magnetic moments, polarizabilities Ee Magnetic bound states, magnetic trapping of Rydberg states Fn Fine and hyperfine structure Hq Ionization potentials, electron affinities Bv Radio-frequency, microwave, and infrared spectra Dx Magnetic resonance spectra Jc Visible and ultraviolet spectra Rj X-ray spectra Cs Oscillator strengths, lifetimes, transition moments Fw Absolute and relative intensities Jz Line shapes, widths, and shifts Aa Inner-shell excitation and ionization Bx Level crossing and optical pumping Cy Atomic scattering, cross sections, and form factors; Compton scattering Dz Autoionization Ee Rydberg states Fb Photoionization of atoms and ions Gc Photodetachment of atomic negative ions Hd Auger effect Lg Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, and ions Pj Optical cooling of atoms; trapping Qk Coherent control of atomic interactions with photons Rm Multiphoton ionization and excitation to highly excited states Wr Other multiphoton processes Xx Level crossing and optical pumping Ys Weak-interaction effects in atoms Zb Autoionization Bh General molecular conformation and symmetry; stereochemistry Dj Interatomic distances and angles Fm Bond strengths, dissociation energies Hp Barrier heights internal rotation, inversion, rotational isomerism, conformational dynamics Kr Electric and magnetic moments and derivatives , polarizability, and magnetic susceptibility Mt Rotation, vibration, and vibration-rotation constants Pw Fine and hyperfine structure Ry Ionization potentials, electron affinities, molecular core binding energy Ta Mass spectra Vb Correlation times in molecular dynamics J- Ultrafast spectroscopy Bx Radio-frequency and microwave spectra Ea Infrared spectra Fb Raman and Rayleigh spectra including optical scattering Kf Visible spectra Lg Ultraviolet spectra Ni Vacuum ultraviolet spectra Rm X-ray spectra Sn Rotational analysis Tp Vibrational analysis Vq Vibration-rotation analysis Wr Vibronic, rovibronic, and rotation-electron-spin interactions Xx Spectra induced by strong-field or attosecond laser irradiation Dq Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra Hv Radiationless transitions, quenching Ad Optical activity, optical rotation; circular dichroism Be Zeeman and Stark effects Fi Other magnetooptical and electrooptical effects Cv Ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectra Fy X-ray photoelectron spectra Ca Oscillator and band strengths, lifetimes, transition moments, and Franck-Condon factors Fd Absolute and relative line and band intensities Jg Line and band widths, shapes, and shifts Be Level crossing and optical pumping Eh Autoionization, photoionization, and photodetachment Gj Diffuse spectra; predissociation, photodissociation Ps Optical cooling of molecules; trapping Rv Multiphoton ionization and excitation to highly excited states e.

Wz Other multiphoton processes Cf Interatomic potentials and forces Gj Intermolecular and atom-molecule potentials and forces Mq Potential energy surfaces for collisions Bw Energy loss and stopping power Cx Elastic; ultracold collisions Dy Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces; photon and electron emission; neutralization of ions Ez Rotational and vibrational energy transfer Fa Electronic excitation and ionization of atoms including beam-foil excitation and ionization Gb Electronic excitation and ionization of molecules Lf Chemical reactions Pi State-to-state scattering analyses Rk Laser-modified scattering and reactions Bm Elastic scattering Dp Atomic excitation and ionization Gs Molecular excitation and ionization Ht Dissociation and dissociative attachment Kw Electron-ion scattering; excitation and ionization Lx Recombination, attachment, and positronium formation My Fundamental electron inelastic processes in weakly ionized gases Nz Spin dependence of cross sections; polarized beam experiments Pa Coherence and correlation Qb Laser-modified scattering Uv Positron scattering Dr Positronium Ee Muonium, muonic atoms and molecules Gv Mesonic, hyperonic and antiprotonic atoms and molecules Cw Molecular weights, dispersity Ey Conformation statistics and dynamics Fz Constitution chains and sequences Hb Configuration bonds, dimensions Kd Electronic structure and spectra Ng Vibrational and rotational structure, infrared and Raman spectra Cg Electronic and magnetic properties of clusters Ei Phase transitions in clusters Gk Plasma and collective effects in clusters Jn Reactivity of clusters Mr Spectroscopy and geometrical structure of clusters Qv Stability and fragmentation of clusters Sx Diffusion and dynamics of clusters Vz Optical properties of clusters Wa Charged clusters De Atom cooling methods Gh Atom traps and guides Jk Atoms in optical lattices Mn Slowing and cooling of molecules Pq Trapping of molecules Rs Ion cooling Ty Ion trapping Vz Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, and ions Cv Electrostatics; Poisson and Laplace equations, boundary-value problems Gz Magnetostatics; magnetic shielding, magnetic induction, boundary-value problems Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation Ap Synchrotron radiation Bq Cherenkov radiation Cr Free-electron lasers Dk Transition radiation Ak Positive-ion beams Cn Negative-ion beams Fr Electron and positron beams Ht Relativistic electron and positron beams Jv Laser-driven acceleration Lx Other advanced accelerator concepts Ar Particle beam extraction, beam injection Ct Particle beam shaping, beam splitting Ew Particle beam profile, beam intensity Gy Chromatic and geometrical aberrations Ja Particle beam transport Lc Particle beam focusing and bending magnets, wiggler magnets, and quadrupoles Ne Electrostatic lenses, septa Qg Particle beam analyzers, beam monitors, and Faraday cups Si Particle beam collimators, monochromators Dp Wave fronts and ray tracing Eq Optical system design Fr Aberrations Bs Wave propagation, transmission and absorption Dd Wave propagation in random media Fx Diffraction and scattering Gy Edge and boundary effects; reflection and refraction Hz Interference Ja Polarization Kb Coherence Lc Birefringence Kq Fourier optics Lr Modulation and optical transfer functions Rx Phase retrieval Sy Pattern recognition Tz Computer vision; robotic vision Va Image forming and processing Wb Image reconstruction; tomography Eq Holographic optical elements; holographic gratings Ht Hologram recording and readout methods Jv Computer-generated holograms Kw Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques Lx Diffraction efficiency, resolution, and other hologram characteristics My Applications Pa Volume holograms Ar Photon statistics and coherence theory Ct Quantum description of interaction of light and matter; related experiments Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements Ex Optical implementations of quantum information processing and transfer Fx Cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems Gy Effects of atomic coherence on propagation, absorption, and amplification of light; electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption Hz Strong-field excitation of optical transitions in quantum systems; multiphoton processes; dynamic Stark shift Lc Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency Nn Quantum optical phenomena in absorbing, amplifying, dispersive and conducting media; cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems Pq Cavity quantum electrodynamics; micromasers St Nonclassical interferometry, subwavelength lithography Tx Optical angular momentum and its quantum aspects Vk Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, electrons, and ions Wk Mechanical effects of light on material media, microstructures and particles Xa Optical tests of quantum theory Ah General laser theory Ks Chemical lasers Lt Gas lasers including excimer and metal-vapor lasers Mv Dye lasers Px Semiconductor lasers; laser diodes Rz Doped-insulator lasers and other solid state lasers Sa Microcavity and microdisk lasers Tv Photonic crystal lasers and coherent effects Wd Fiber lasers Xi Diode-pumped lasers Ye Raman lasers Zz Random lasers By Design of specific laser systems Da Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings Fc Modulation, tuning, and mode locking Gd Q-switching Jf Beam characteristics: profile, intensity, and power; spatial pattern formation Lh Efficiency, stability, gain, and other operational parameters Mi Dynamical laser instabilities; noisy laser behavior Pk Continuous operation Rn Relaxation oscillations and long pulse operation Be Biological and medical applications Cf Industrial applications Eh Metrological applications; optical frequency synthesizers for precision spectroscopy Fi Laser spectroscopy An Optical susceptibility, hyperpolarizability Es Stimulated Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering Hw Phase conjugation; photorefractive and Kerr effects Jx Beam trapping, self-focusing and defocusing; self-phase modulation Ky Frequency conversion; harmonic generation, including higher-order harmonic generation Lm Parametric down conversion and production of entangled photons Pc Optical bistability, multistability, and switching, including local field effects Re Ultrafast processes; optical pulse generation and pulse compression Sf Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems; optical instabilities, optical chaos and complexity, and optical spatio-temporal dynamics Tg Optical solitons; nonlinear guided waves Wi Nonlinear waveguides Yj Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers Ct Anatomy and optics of eye Ew Physiology of eye; optic-nerve structure and function Lc Vision: light detection, adaptation, and discrimination Ne Color vision: color detection, adaptation, and discrimination Qg Scales for light and color detection Si Psychophysics of vision, visual perception; binocular vision Ay Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer Bz Atmospheric turbulence effects Ca Spectral absorption by atmospheric gases Ge Effects of clouds and water; ice crystal phenomena Jg Effects of aerosols Kh Effects of air pollution Mj Scattering, polarization Sq Image transmission and formation Xy Ocean optics Ce Glasses, quartz Df Liquid crystals Gi Light-sensitive materials Hj Laser materials Jk Polymers and organics Km Infrared transmitting materials Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media Mp Nonlinear optical crystals Soc , , pp.

Condensed Matter , 21, Art.

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Yastrebov, S and Smith, R Nanodiamonds enveloped in glassy carbon shells and the origin of the optical extinction feature , Astrophysical Journal , 2 , pp. Material , , pp. Richter, A, Smith, R , Dubrovinskaia, N, McGee, E Mechanical properties of superhard materials synthesised at various pressure-temperature conditions investigated by nanoindentation , High Pressure Research , 26 2 , pp. Phys , D. Royal Society , , pp.

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Ion beam-generated surface ripples: new insight in the underlying mechanism

At steady state, the composition spike is governed by a conservation relation which equates the ratio of the sputtered fluxes taking into account both mass and binding effects to the ratio of bulk compositions. The steady-state second-atom-layer composition is determined by a relation similar to that for equilibrium Gibbsian segregation, but with the segregation ratio governed by a kinetic quantity rather than a thermodynamic one. Beyond the second atom layer there is a composition profile ideally describable for bombardments at or below ambient temperature by ion-beam mixing theory, but which can be shown also to admit a tractable diffusion approximation.

Kiriakidis, G. Crete Univ.

Physics Department ; Carter, G. Salford Univ.

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